APA Publication Manual

This guide is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2010). The examples below are from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers by McMaster University Library and are used with permission.

Citing Print Sources


Author (Last name, First name). (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.


Speck, D.C. (1998). The pleasure of the crown. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Talonbooks.

Book With 2 Or 3 Authors:

Foster, B.C., & Tisdell, C.A. (1986). Economics in Canadian society. Toronto, ON, Canada: Wiley.

Book With An Editor:

Treat, J.W. (Ed.). (1996). Contemporary Japan and popular culture. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Essay Or Chapter In A Book:

Keating, N.C. (1992). Older rural Canadians. In D.A. Hay (Ed.), Rural sociology in Canada (pp. 134-154). Toronto, ON, Canada: Oxford University Press.

Signed Article Daily Newspaper:

Staples, S. (2005, December 8). A 'quantum' leap in communication. Ottawa Citizen, pp. A1, A10.

Citing Personal Communication

Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay.


(P. Smith, personal communication, November, 16, 2002)

Citing Electronic Sources


Author (Date or "n.d" if not dated). Title of document. (if given). Retrieved from


Anderson, D. (2002, May 1). Social constructionism and MOOs. Retrieved from http://sites.unc.edu/~daniel/social_constructionism

Online Book

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from

Electronic Journal Article (with Digital Object Identifier [DOI])

Herbst-Damm, K. L. & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Electronic Journal Article (when DOI is not available)

Wissink, J.A. (2000). Techniques of smoking cessation. Adolescent Medicine, 2, 15-22. Retrieved from

Online Newspaper

York, G. (2003, June 9). Chinese waters rising higher. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from


P. Z. Myers (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partioning your mind [Web log post] Retrieved from


Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Psychology Wiki:

Audio Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2006, October 13). Understanding autism [Show 54]. Shrink Rap Radio. Podcast retrieved from  

Video Weblog Post (YouTube)

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from/

Citing Other Sources


Lecturer, A. (Date). Lecture number: Title of lecture [Format]. Retrieved from


Etches-Johnson, A. (2007). Lecture 1: Library research for communication studies

[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from


lang, k. d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Film Or Video Recording

American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from